It’s a quiet, warm summer evening with no human in sight for miles in the woods. As the sun sets, tiny flashes of light start to flicker throughout the trees. At first there’s just a few, but soon hundreds of blinking lights are floating in the forest.
Fireflies have come out for the evening.
COMMON NAME: Fireflies
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lampyridae
AVG. LIFE SPAN: About 2 months
SIZE: Up to 1 inch
Fireflies make summer magical, but there’s more to learn about these bioluminescent beauties. There are many wonders to behold in the animal world, but few offer such enchantment as that of a summer evening punctuated with the twinkle of fireflies. It’s a singular experience, like handfuls of Lilliputian stars tossed from the sky, falling to flit and hovering among the grass and brambles. But behind their charming facade, fireflies are fascinating little insects.
Consider the following facts:
Fireflies also known as lightning bugs, fireflies are beetles. Most fireflies are winged. That’s different from other light-producing insects of the same family, called glowworms. (Animals that produce light are called luminescent.
There are about 2,000 firefly species. These insects often live in humid regions of Asia and the Americas, where they mostly feast on plant pollen and nectar. Firefly larvae—recently hatched worm-like fireflies that haven’t fully developed yet (including their wings)—feed on worms, snails, and insects.
These insects live in a variety of warm environments, as well as in more temperate regions, and are a familiar sight on summer evenings.
Fireflies mostly use their light to “talk” to other fireflies and find a mate. They have special organs under their abdomens that take in oxygen. Inside special cells, they combine oxygen with a substance called luciferin to make light with almost no heat. They use this light, called bioluminescence, to light up the ends of their abdomen.
Each firefly species has its own unique flashing pattern. When a male firefly wants to communicate with a female firefly, he flies near the ground while he flashes his light every six seconds. Once he’s near the ground, a female can more easily tell if he’s from the same species as she is. (Most female fireflies can’t fly.) She answers his flashes by turning on her lights. Then the male finds her.
Predators, such as birds or toads, get a different message from these lights. Although they can easily spot fireflies by their glow, they rarely eat them. That’s because fireflies release drops of toxic, foul-tasting blood. Their flashing is a warning light to predators to stay away.
Fireflies aren’t endangered, but scientists are worried about them. In recent years, fewer insects have been spotted during the summer. Pesticide use and loss of habitat have likely impacted the population, as has light pollution. Too much night-time light can be harmful to wildlife, affecting their migration patterns and hunting abilities. For fireflies, light pollution interferes with their attempts to signal each other.
Scientists aren’t sure how much the firefly population has dropped since their small size makes them hard to tag and track. Plus an adult firefly’s life span is just one to three weeks, which makes counting them difficult. Scientists are working on ways to better track and protect these insects.
See another side to the beauty of the Sahyadri Mountains as fireflies light up the tranquil night and add shimmering life to the dark forest. Get up close and personal with these fascinating insects and know more about them.
Plan your Firefly Watching Tour in the nearby Sahyadri Mountains today, and get ready to witness the mystical beauty of thousands of fireflies illuminating the night!